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Mutat Res. 2007 Jun 15;630(1-2):50-68. Epub 2007 Mar 12.

The pathogen reduction treatment of platelets with S-59 HCl (Amotosalen) plus ultraviolet A light: genotoxicity profile and hazard assessment.

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Tice Consulting, Hillsborough, NC 27278, USA.


Despite restrictive donor criteria and screening procedures, infections resulting from the transfusion of bacterially contaminated platelet products continue to occur. Pathogen reduction technologies targeting nucleic acids have been developed. However, concerns about the safety of these procedures exist; the main concern being the possible mutagenic and carcinogenic effects of the pathogen-inactivated preparation in the recipient. This report reviews the genotoxicity profile of the S-59 (Amotosalen) plus long wavelength ultraviolet light (UVA) pathogen reduction technology, and assesses the mutagenic and carcinogenic hazards in recipients of treated platelets. S-59, a synthetic heterocyclic psoralen, non-covalently intercalates into the nucleic acids of pathogens and forms crosslinks when UVA photoactivated. Before clinical use, the levels of residual S-59 and free photoproducts are greatly reduced using a 'compound adsorption device' (CAD). In vitro, S-59 is mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium and mouse lymphoma L5178Y TK(+/-) cells, and is clastogenic in CHO cells. There is reduced activity (Salmonella, CHO cells) or no activity (mouse lymphoma cells) with metabolic activation (S9 mix). When tested up to toxic dose levels, S-59 was negative in the mouse bone marrow micronucleus assay and the rat hepatocyte unscheduled DNA synthesis (UDS) test. Based on comparative studies conducted with S-59 plus UVA-treated platelets (up to 25 times without CAD), any genotoxic effects can be attributed to residual S-59. Considering (1) the known genotoxic mechanism of action for S-59, (2) the negative in vivo studies for S-59 at multiples >40,000x over clinical peak plasma levels, and (3) the fact that the positive in vitro genotoxicity effects for the end product seem due to residual S-59, any mutagenic hazard to a recipient of S-59 plus UVA-treated platelets is negligible and there is no concern about a carcinogenic potential as a consequence of a mutagenic activity. This conclusion is supported by a negative p53(+/-) mouse carcinogenicity study.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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