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Med Klin (Munich). 2007 Apr 15;102(4):317-23.

[Allogeneic stem cell transplantation in the management of acute myeloid leukemia].

[Article in German]

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Einheit für Stammzelltransplantation, II, Medizinische Klinik, Klinikum Augsburg, Augsburg.


Allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) is the most powerful treatment option for acute myeloid leukemia (AML). However, SCT is also complicated by a high risk for treatment-related morbidity and mortality. The antileukemic effect of SCT is based on the radio-/chemotherapy applied for conditioning, as well as on the allogeneic immune reaction, mediated by immunocompetent donor cells, the graft-versus-leukemia effect. The latter effect is of particular importance in the context of reduced-intensity conditioning regimens, that have enabled us to offer allogeneic SCT to a by far bigger part of patients suffering from AML. The indication for allogeneic SCT is based on the patient's individual risk profile. Biological and clinical characteristics of the leukemia contribute to this risk profile, as do extraleukemic conditions such as age and comorbidity. Allogeneic SCT represents the standard of care for all patients with AML < 65 years of age, who are beyond first complete remission (CR) or who have failed to respond to induction chemotherapy. In first CR, allogeneic SCT is a standard for patients with unfavorable karyotype disease or other risk factors, whereas for patients without specific risk factors it is just an option, in particular within clinical trials. In patients with a favorable leukemic karyotype, allogeneic SCT is usually not performed in first CR. Future developments in the field include transplant strategies specifically designed for biological AML subgroups, as well as the integration of new drugs into transplant regimens.

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