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J Clin Nurs. 2008 Feb;17(3):323-32. Epub 2007 Apr 5.

Translation and validation of a Chinese version of the Self-Control Schedule in Chinese childbearing women.

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The Nethersole School of Nursing, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.



The aims of this study were to translate and evaluate the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Self-Control Schedule (C-SCS) in Chinese childbearing women.


The SCS was developed to measure learned resourcefulness, which facilitates people's coping under adversity. Promoting learned resourcefulness in childbearing women facilitates positive adaptation to motherhood, which is essential to both maternal and child health. Thus, a reliable and valid C-SCS is crucial for the development of interventions to promote learned resourcefulness in Chinese childbearing women.


In phase one, the SCS was translated into Chinese using the technique of translation and back-translation and was reviewed by an expert panel for cultural equivalence. In phase two, psychometric testing of the C-SCS was conducted by using a convenience sample of 360 childbearing women recruited from an antenatal clinic of a regional hospital. Four instruments including the C-SCS, General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) and Edinburgh's Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) were administered to the participants. Ninety-two women participated in the four-week retest.


The C-SCS demonstrated good internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0.83) and test-retest reliability (ICC = 0.91). Factor analysis revealed the presence of three factors supporting the conceptual dimension of the original instrument. Significant correlations with GSE (r = 0.48, p < 0.01), RSES (r = 0.41, p < 0.01) and EPDS (r = -0.46, p < 0.01) demonstrated good construct validity.


The findings suggest that the C-SCS is a reliable and valid instrument for measuring learned resourcefulness in Chinese childbearing women.


The C-SCS provides midwives with a useful tool in the evaluation of interventions designed to strengthen Chinese women's learned resourcefulness and promote maternal well-being during childbearing.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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