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J Behav Med. 2007 Jun;30(3):253-61. Epub 2007 Apr 7.

Effects of expanded cardiac rehabilitation on psychosocial status in coronary artery disease with focus on type D characteristics.

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Division of Cardiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, 18288 Stockholm, Sweden.


Type D personality has been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular events in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). We investigated the effects of expanded cardiac rehabilitation on type D score and psychosocial characteristics in 224 CAD patients randomised to either expanded cardiac rehabilitation (stress management, increased physical training, stay at a "Patient Hotel" after discharge and cooking sessions), or routine rehabilitation. Follow-up was 1 year. At baseline patients with a high type D score [patients in the upper quartile of type D score (Q4) i.e., type D patients] had a lower sense of coherence (p < 0.001), a lower quality of life (p < 0.001), more depressive symptoms (p < 0.001) and increased anxiety (p < 0.001) as compared to patients with a low type D score (Q1). During follow-up, type D patients (Q4) randomised to intervention had significant decrements in type D-score (p < 0.01), depression and anxiety (p < 0.05) and an increment in quality of life scores (p < 0.001). Quality of life was also improved in control type D patients (Q4; p < 0.01) but no significant changes were seen in type D score, depression or anxiety. Expanded cardiac rehabilitation reduces type D score, anxiety and depressive symptoms, and improves the quality of life in type D patients.

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