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Appl Opt. 2007 Apr 20;46(12):2180-8.

Analysis of multimask fabrication errors for diffractive optical elements.

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School of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh, UK.


As design algorithms for diffractive optical elements improve, the limiting factor becomes the fabrication process. It is hoped a better understanding of fabrication errors will allow elements with greater tolerance to be designed. This is important for high-power laser fiber coupling, where hot spots lead to failure. We model seven different fan-out gratings applying misetch, misalignment, and feature rounding. Our main findings are that misetch can lead to improved results, misalignment is strongly asymmetric, and both the pi and pi/2 masks can dominate misalignment. Rounding has a r(2) dependence and potentially can be incorporated into the design stage. Finally we present some experimental data for misalignment.


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