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Shock. 2007 Apr;27(4):390-6.

Pulmonary function is better preserved in pigs when acute normovolemic hemodilution is achieved with hydroxyethyl starch versus lactated Ringer's solution.

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  • 1Department of Surgery, School of Medicine, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.


Acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) has been proposed to decrease the need for allogenic blood transfusion. Consequently, great amounts of fluids are necessary to maintain hemodynamics during and after blood removal. The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the oxygenation, respiratory compliance, and lung structure during ANH performed with lactated Ringer's solution and hydroxyethyl starch (HES). Gas exchange, extravascular lung water, intrathoracic blood volume, serum osmolality, respiratory mechanics, and optical and electronic microscopy of lung biopsies were evaluated. Animals were randomized into three groups: CTL (control, n = 9), HES (HES 6% 200/0.5, n = 9), and LR (lactated Ringer's solution, n = 9). Animals in groups HES and LR underwent ANH to reach a preestablished hematocrit of around 15%. The removed blood was replaced with HES in a proportion of 1:1 and with lactated Ringer's solution 3:1. The LR group demonstrated a tendency for a marked time-dependence decrease in compliance (P = 0.013 in T2; P = 0.008 in T3) and in Pao2/fraction of inspired oxygen (Fio2) ratio (P = 0.033 in T2) as well as an increase in (A-a) Grad O2 (P = 0.037 in T2). Extravascular lung water and intrathoracic blood volume did not present any significant variation among the groups. In contrast, serum osmolality presented a significant decline in animals hemodiluted with lactated Ringer's solution. Optical and electronic microscopy of lungs biopsies revealed moderate to serious collapses and basement membrane enlargement in LR group. In this kind of experimental model, ANH with 6% HES (200/0.5) seems to preserve lung structure better as evidenced by maintenance of oxygenation indexes and respiratory compliance when compared with that in the Ringer's solution hemodiluted group.

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