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Gastroenterology. 2007 Apr;132(4):1420-31. Epub 2007 Jan 25.

The forkhead box M1 transcription factor contributes to the development and growth of mouse colorectal cancer.

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Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Genetics, University of Illinois at Chicago, College of Medicine, Chicago, Illinois, USA.



In this study, we used Forkhead Box m1b (Foxm1b) transgenic mice and conditional Foxm1 knock-out mice to examine the role of Foxm1 in colon cancer development and proliferation.


To induce mouse colorectal cancer, we used a single intraperitoneal injection of azoxymethane (AOM) followed by three 1-week cycles of 2.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) water, each cycle separated by 2 weeks. For these colon tumor studies, we used either Rosa26-Foxm1b transgenic mice that ubiquitously expressed the human Foxm1b complementary DNA or mice in which the Foxm1 fl/fl targeted allele was deleted in colonic epithelial cells using the gut-specific Villin-Cre recombinase transgene (Villin-Cre). Colorectal tumor number and bromodeoxyuridine labeling were determined in Rosa26-Foxm1b mice, Villin-Cre Foxm1-/-, mice and wild-type mice after 12 weeks of AOM/DDS exposure. We also used Foxm1 small interfering RNA-depleted human DLD1 and mouse CT26 colon cancer cell lines to examine DNA replication and anchorage-independent growth.


After 12 weeks of treatment with AOM/DSS, Rosa26 Foxm1b transgenic mice showed an increase in the number and size of colorectal tumors compared with wild-type mice. Likewise, a significant reduction in the development and growth of colorectal tumors was found in Villin-Cre Foxm1-/- mice compared with Foxm1 fl/fl mice after AOM/DSS treatment, which was associated with decreased expression of cyclin A2, cyclin B1, survivin, and T-cell factor 4 genes. Moreover, Foxm1-depleted colon cancer cell lines showed reduced DNA replication and anchorage-independent growth.


These studies suggest that Foxm1 is critical for the proliferation and growth of colorectal cancer.

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