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Nat Protoc. 2006;1(2):848-58.

Morris water maze: procedures for assessing spatial and related forms of learning and memory.

Author information

1
Division of Neurology (MLC 7044), Cincinnati Children's Research Foundation and Department of Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 3333 Burnet Ave., Cincinnati, OH 45229-3039, USA. charles.vorhees@cchmc.org

Abstract

The Morris water maze (MWM) is a test of spatial learning for rodents that relies on distal cues to navigate from start locations around the perimeter of an open swimming arena to locate a submerged escape platform. Spatial learning is assessed across repeated trials and reference memory is determined by preference for the platform area when the platform is absent. Reversal and shift trials enhance the detection of spatial impairments. Trial-dependent, latent and discrimination learning can be assessed using modifications of the basic protocol. Search-to-platform area determines the degree of reliance on spatial versus non-spatial strategies. Cued trials determine whether performance factors that are unrelated to place learning are present. Escape from water is relatively immune from activity or body mass differences, making it ideal for many experimental models. The MWM has proven to be a robust and reliable test that is strongly correlated with hippocampal synaptic plasticity and NMDA receptor function. We present protocols for performing variants of the MWM test, from which results can be obtained from individual animals in as few as 6 days.

PMID:
17406317
PMCID:
PMC2895266
DOI:
10.1038/nprot.2006.116
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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