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Ann Intern Med. 2007 Apr 3;146(7):477-85.

The effect of adding exenatide to a thiazolidinedione in suboptimally controlled type 2 diabetes: a randomized trial.

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Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, and University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Erratum in

  • Ann Intern Med. 2007 Jun 19;146(12):896.



Exenatide therapy is effective in combination with metformin or sulfonylureas for treating type 2 diabetes. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) also are commonly used, but the efficacy of exenatide with a TZD has not been reported.


To compare the effects of exenatide versus placebo on glycemic control.


Placebo run-in, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial conducted from May 2004 to August 2005.


49 sites in Canada, Spain, and the United States.


233 (exenatide group, n = 121; placebo group, n = 112) patients with type 2 diabetes that was suboptimally controlled with TZD treatment (with or without metformin). Mean (+/-SE) baseline glycated hemoglobin A1c level was 7.9% +/- 0.1%.


Subcutaneous abdominal injections of 10 microg of exenatide or placebo twice daily, added to a TZD (with or without metformin) for 16 weeks.


The primary outcome was change from baseline in hemoglobin A1c level. Other outcomes were fasting serum glucose level, body weight, self-monitored blood glucose level, and any adverse events.


Exenatide treatment reduced hemoglobin A(1c) level (mean difference, -0.98% [95% CI, -1.21% to -0.74%]), serum fasting glucose level (mean difference, -1.69 mmol/L [-30.5 mg/dL] [CI, -2.22 to -1.17 mmol/L {-40.0 to -21.1 mg/dL}]), and body weight (mean difference, -1.51 kg [CI, -2.15 to -0.88 kg]). Sixteen percent of patients in the exenatide group and 2% of patients in the placebo group discontinued treatment because of adverse events. In the exenatide group, 40% (n = 48) of patients experienced nausea (mostly mild [n = 21] or moderate [n = 19]), 13% experienced vomiting, and 11% experienced hypoglycemia. In the placebo group, 15% of patients experienced nausea, 1% experienced vomiting, and 7% experienced hypoglycemia.


Combinations with TZDs and sulfonylureas were not tested. Trial duration was relatively short. Only 71% and 86% of patients in the exenatide and placebo groups, respectively, completed the study.


Exenatide therapy improved glycemic control, reduced body weight, and caused gastrointestinal symptoms more than placebo in patients with type 2 diabetes that was suboptimally controlled with TZD therapy. registration number: NCT00099320. For more information on exenatide click here.

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