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Phytochemistry. 2007 Apr;68(8):1156-64. Epub 2007 Mar 30.

Iodus 40, salicylic acid, heptanoyl salicylic acid and trehalose exhibit different efficacies and defence targets during a wheat/powdery mildew interaction.

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Laboratoire Mycologie-Phytopathologie-Environnement, Université du Littoral Côte d'Opale, B.P. 699, F-62228 Calais cedex, France.


Prophylactic efficacies of Iodus 40 and salicylic acid (SA) against wheat powdery mildew caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici have been shown and compared with those of heptanoyl salicylic acid (HSA) and trehalose. Plantlets treated once exhibited 55%, 50%, 95%, and 38% protection levels, respectively. Two sprayings increased these levels up to 60%, 65%, 100%, and 60%, respectively. Biological effects of these resistance inducers on reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism and lipid peroxidation were also investigated. We found clear differences in the extent and the type of induced responses, with HSA exhibiting both the most numerous and the highest effects. HSA and SA induced a 5.5-fold increase of whole cell DAB staining due to hydrogen peroxide accumulation, whereas Iodus 40 and trehalose increased staining intensity at the penetration sites only. However, these effects were not correlated with any modification of catalase (CAT), oxalate oxidase (OXO) or lipoxygenase (LOX) activities, except for HSA which decreased CAT in non-inoculated conditions and increased LOX in infectious conditions. HSA also induced an increase in the rate of lipid peroxidation, whereas Iodus 40 induced a decrease. The effects of the inducers on germinating conidia and wheat epidermal cells responding to fungal penetration were also investigated. Papilla-linked autofluorescence was affected by SA and Iodus 40 whereas germination was slightly altered by Iodus 40. The newly described protective efficacies and the partial, distinct and non-overlapping activities of these inducers on the wheat/powdery mildew interaction are discussed.

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