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Eur J Pharmacol. 2007 Jun 14;564(1-3):158-66. Epub 2007 Mar 12.

Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibition improves endothelial dysfunction induced by reactive oxidant hydrogen peroxide in vitro.

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Laboratory of Cardiac Surgery, Department of Cardiac Surgery, University of Heidelberg, OG 2, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.


Reactive oxygen species, such as hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induce oxidative stress and DNA-injury. The subsequent activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases including ischaemia-reperfusion injury, circulatory shock, diabetic complications and atherosclerosis. We investigated the effect of PARP-inhibition on endothelial dysfunction induced by H(2)O(2). In vascular reactivity measurements on isolated rat aortic rings we investigated the phenylephrine-induced contraction, and endothelium-dependent and -independent vasorelaxation by using cumulative concentrations of acetylcholine and sodium nitroprusside. Endothelial dysfunction was induced by exposing the rings to H(2)O(2) (200 and 400 muM) for 30 min. In the treatment group, rings were preincubated with the potent PARP-inhibitor INO-1001. DNA strand breaks were assessed by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) method. Immunohistochemical analysis was performed for poly(ADP-ribose) (the enzymatic product of PARP) and for apoptosis inducing factor (a pro-apoptotic factor regulated by PARP). Exposure to H(2)O(2) resulted in reduced contraction forces and a dose-dependent impairment of endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation of aortic rings (maximal relaxation to acetylcholine: 86.21+/-1.574% control vs. 72.55+/-1.984% H(2)O(2) 200 muM vs. 66.86+/-1.961% H(2)O(2) 400 muM; P<0.05). PARP-inhibition significantly improved the acetylcholine-induced vasorelaxation (77.75+/-3.019% vs. 66.86+/-1.961%; P<0.05), while the contractility remained unaffected. The dose-response curves of endothelium-independent vasorelaxation to sodium nitroprusside did not differ in any groups studied. In the H(2)O(2) groups immunohistochemical analysis showed enhanced PARP-activation and nuclear translocation of apoptosis inducing factor, which were prevented by INO-1001. Our results demonstrate that PARP activation contributes to the pathogenesis of H(2)O(2)-induced endothelial dysfunction, which can be prevented by PARP inhibitors.

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