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J Infect Dis. 2007 May 1;195(9):1303-10. Epub 2007 Mar 19.

Mechanisms of polymorphonuclear neutrophil-mediated induction of HIV-1 replication in macrophages during pulmonary tuberculosis.

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Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY 10016, USA.



Pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) can present with polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN)-predominant alveolitis. TB accelerates acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by increasing human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and mutation in alveolar macrophages. A 16-kDa CCAAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBP beta ) isoform is a strong transcriptional repressor of the HIV long terminal repeat (LTR) in resting alveolar macrophages, leading to latent viral infection; its expression is lost during TB, derepressing the HIV LTR.


Lung segments were sampled from HIV/Mycobacterium tuberculosis-coinfected patients by means of bronchoalveolar lavage. In vitro coculture experiments defined the mechanism of induction of HIV-1 infection in macrophages by PMNs.


Lung segments from patients with PMN-predominant TB had a markedly elevated viral load. Direct contact between activated PMNs and macrophages stimulated HIV-1 replication and LTR transcription and down-regulated inhibitory C/EBP beta . Isolated PMN membranes substituted for PMN contact, derepressing the HIV-1 LTR. The lipid raft fraction of PMN membranes expressed CD40 ligand (CD40L), CD28, and leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1 [i.e., CD11a and CD18]), and PMN activation increased lipid raft expression of CD40L and CD28. Blocking antibodies to CD40L, CD28, and LFA-1 inhibited PMN membrane-mediated HIV-1 LTR derepression. Alternately, cross-linking of macrophage receptors for CD40L, CD28, and LFA-1 (CD40, CD80/86, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1) abolished inhibitory C/EBP beta expression.


PMN-macrophage contact derepresses the HIV-1 LTR and enhances HIV-1 replication in alveolar macrophages during pulmonary TB. Derepression is mediated through costimulatory molecule signaling.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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