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J Biol Chem. 2007 May 25;282(21):15319-23. Epub 2007 Mar 29.

Toll-like receptors and Type I interferons.

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Department of Host Defense, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University and ERATO, Japan Science and Technology Corporation, 3-1 Yamada-oka, Suita Osaka 565-0871, Japan.


Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key molecules of the innate immune systems, which detect conserved structures found in a broad range of pathogens and trigger innate immune responses. A subset of TLRs recognizes viral components and induces antiviral responses. Whereas TLR4 recognizes viral components at the cell surface, TLR3, TLR7, TLR8, and TLR9 recognize viral nucleic acids on endosomal membrane. After ligand recognition, these members activate their intrinsic signaling pathways and induce type I interferon. In this review, we discuss the recent findings of the viral recognition by TLRs and their signaling pathways.

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