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J Phys Chem A. 2007 Apr 19;111(15):2898-906. Epub 2007 Mar 27.

The influence of fluoroquinolone drugs on the bacterial growth of S. epidermidis utilizing the unique potential of vibrational spectroscopy.

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Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität Jena, Helmholtzweg 4, Jena, 07743, Germany.


Increasing resistance of many antibiotics has made the design of new drugs necessary. To assist a target-oriented search for new structures and for the elucidation of the mode of action of existing drugs, powerful analytical techniques are required. In this work, vibrational spectroscopy is used to shed more light on the as-yet elusive interaction of gyrase inhibitors of the fluoroquinolone type with their biological target inside the Gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus epidermidis by investigating whole-cell changes that occur as a result of the presence of the drug moxifloxacin. IR absorption and Raman spectra with excitation off resonance (lambda exc = 532 nm) and in resonance with the biological targets DNA and the aromatic amino acids of gyrase (lambda exc = 244 nm) were recorded for unperturbed bacteria and bacteria in varying drug concentrations (0.08, 0.16, 0.27, and 0.62 microg moxifloxacin/mL bacterial culture). The spectral changes caused by the action of the drug were analyzed with the help of statistical methods, such as hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA), and Fisher's linear discriminant analysis (LDA) combined with variable selection. The wavenumbers mostly affected by the action of the drug could be assigned to protein and DNA moieties, supporting the proposed mechanisms of a tertiary complex of the fluoroquinolone, the enzyme gyrase, and DNA.

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