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Oncogene. 2007 Sep 6;26(41):6021-30. Epub 2007 Mar 26.

Identification of a PP2A-interacting protein that functions as a negative regulator of phosphatase activity in the ATM/ATR signaling pathway.

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Department of Pharmacology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN 37232-6600, USA.


Protein serine/threonine phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity must be tightly controlled to maintain cell homeostasis. Here, we report the identification of a previously uncharacterized mammalian protein, type 2A-interacting protein (TIP), as a novel regulatory protein of PP2A and the PP2A-like enzymes PP4 and PP6. TIP is a ubiquitously expressed protein and parallels the distribution of the PP2A catalytic subunit. Unlike its role in yeast, TIP does not interact with the mammalian homolog of type 2A-associated protein of 42 kDa (Tap42), alpha4, but instead associates with PP2A, PP4 and PP6 catalytic subunits independently of mammalian target of rapamycin kinase activity. Interestingly, the 20 kDa TIP splice variant TIP_i2, which lacks amino acids 173-272 of TIP's C-terminus, does not interact with PP2A; this finding indicates that residues 173-272 are important for the assembly of the TIP.phosphatase complex. In contrast to purified PP2A holoenzymes, TIP.PP2A complexes are devoid of phosphatase activity. Furthermore, alterations in the cellular levels of TIP influence the phosphorylation state of a specific protein substrate of ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM)/ATM- and Rad3-related (ATR) kinases. Elevated levels of TIP result in an increase in the phosphorylation state of this protein substrate, whereas TIP-depleted cells exhibit a significant decrease in this protein's phosphorylation state, which is reversed by treatment with the PP2A inhibitor okadaic acid. These results indicate TIP is a novel inhibitory regulator of PP2A and implicate a role for TIP.PP2A complexes within the ATM/ATR signaling pathway controlling DNA replication and repair.

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