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Plant Physiol. 2007 May;144(1):258-77. Epub 2007 Mar 23.

Comprehensive expression profiling of rice grain filling-related genes under high temperature using DNA microarray.

Author information

1
National Agricultural Research Center, Joetsu, Niigata 943-0193, Japan. hy741220@affrc.go.jp

Abstract

To elucidate the effect of high temperature on grain-filling metabolism, developing rice (Oryza sativa) "Nipponbare" caryopses were exposed to high temperature (33 degrees C/28 degrees C) or control temperature (25 degrees C/20 degrees C) during the milky stage. Comprehensive gene screening by a 22-K DNA microarray and differential hybridization, followed by expression analysis by semiquantitative reverse transcription-PCR, revealed that several starch synthesis-related genes, such as granule-bound starch synthase I (GBSSI) and branching enzymes, especially BEIIb, and a cytosolic pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase gene were down-regulated by high temperature, whereas those for starch-consuming alpha-amylases and heat shock proteins were up-regulated. Biochemical analyses of starch showed that the high temperature-ripened grains contained decreased levels of amylose and long chain-enriched amylopectin, which might be attributed to the repressed expression of GBSSI and BEIIb, respectively. SDS-PAGE and immunoblot analysis of storage proteins revealed decreased accumulation of 13-kD prolamin, which is consistent with the diminished expression of prolamin genes under elevated temperature. Ripening under high temperature resulted in the occurrence of grains with various degrees of chalky appearance and decreased weight. Among them, severely chalky grains contained amylopectin enriched particularly with long chains compared to slightly chalky grains, suggesting that such alterations of amylopectin structure might be involved in grain chalkiness. However, among high temperature-tolerant and sensitive cultivars, alterations of neither amylopectin chain-length distribution nor amylose content were correlated to the degree of grain chalkiness, but rather seemed to be correlated to grain weight decrease, implying different underlying mechanisms for the varietal difference in grain chalkiness. The possible metabolic pathways affected by high temperature and their relevance to grain chalkiness are discussed.

PMID:
17384160
PMCID:
PMC1913800
DOI:
10.1104/pp.107.098665
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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