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J Urol. 2007 Apr;177(4):1385-9.

The association of nocturia with cardiac disease, diabetes, body mass index, age and diuretic use: results from the BACH survey.

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Loyola University Medical Center, Maywood, Illinois 60153, USA.



We examined the association of nocturia with age, race/ethnicity, gender, cardiac disease, diabetes, body mass index and diuretic use.


Data were obtained from the Boston Area Community Health study, which used a multistage, stratified, cluster random sample design to recruit 5,506 adults at ages 30 to 79 years from Boston. Nocturia was defined as fairly often or more frequently arising up to urinate more than once nightly in the last month and/or going to the bathroom more than once nightly in the last week. Observations were weighted inversely proportional to their probability of selection into the study. Analyses were performed using SUDAAN.


Nocturia was present in 1,872 respondents (28.4%). In a multivariate model the odds of nocturia increased with age (p <0.001), were higher for minority vs white respondents (black and Hispanic respondents OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.53, 2.32 and OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.26, 2.04, respectively), were lower for men (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.65, 0.97), increased with increasing body mass index (p <0.001) and were higher if the respondent had type II diabetes (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.20, 2.33) or cardiac disease (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.01, 1.87), or used diuretics (OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.08, 1.75). Nocturia was associated with decreased physical and mental health scores.


Nocturia is common and associated with decreased quality of life. When planning treatment, clinicians should consider causes of nocturia outside of the lower urinary tract.

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