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Resuscitation. 2007 Aug;74(2):357-65. Epub 2007 Mar 26.

Continuous passive oxygen insufflation results in a similar outcome to positive pressure ventilation in a swine model of out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation.

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1
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Arizona, College of Medicine, Sarver Heart Center, Tucson, AZ 85724, USA.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

The deleterious effects of positive pressure ventilation may be prevented by substituting passive oxygen insufflation during advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).

METHODS:

We compared 24-h neurologically normal survival among three different ventilation scenarios for ACLS in a realistic swine model of out-of-hospital prolonged ventricular fibrillation (VF) cardiac arrest. No bystander CPR was provided during the first 8 min of untreated VF before the simulated arrival of an emergency medical system (EMS). Thirty-six swine were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups. Group I (standard ventilation) was mechanically ventilated at 10 respirations per minute (RPM) at a tidal volume (TV) of 10 ml/kg with 100% oxygen. Group II (hyperventilation) was ventilated at 35 RPM at a TV of 20 ml/kg with 100% oxygen. In Group III (insufflation) animals, a nasal cannula was placed in the oropharynx to administer oxygen continuously at 10 l/min.

RESULTS:

There was no significant difference in the 24h neurologically normal survival among groups (standard: 2/12, hyperventilation: 2/12, insufflation: 4/12; p=.53).

CONCLUSIONS:

Passive insufflation may be an acceptable alternative to the currently recommended positive pressure ventilation during resuscitation efforts for out-of-hospital VF cardiac arrest. Potential advantages of this technique include: (1) easier to teach, (2) easier to administer, (3) prevention of the adverse effects of positive pressure ventilation and (4) allows EMS personnel to concentrate upon other critically important duties.

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