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Eur J Hum Genet. 2007 May;15(5):511-21. Epub 2007 Mar 21.

Joubert syndrome (and related disorders) (OMIM 213300).

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Division of Genetics and Developmental Medicine, Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, WA 98195-6320, USA.


Joubert syndrome (JS) and related disorders are characterized by the 'molar tooth sign' (cerebellar vermis hypoplasia and brainstem anomalies) on MRI, hypotonia, developmental delay, ataxia, irregular breathing pattern and abnormal eye movements. Combinations of additional features such as polydactyly, ocular coloboma, retinal dystrophy, renal disease, hepatic fibrosis, encephalocele, and other brain malformations define clinical sub-types. Recent identification of the NPHP1, AHI1, and CEP290 genes has started to reveal the molecular basis of JS, which may implicate the primary cilium in these disorders. Additional genes remain to be identified.

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