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Neuroendocrinology. 2007;86(3):165-74. Epub 2007 Mar 22.

Comparative aspects of GH and metabolic regulation in lower vertebrates.

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MNHN, D├ępartement des Milieux et Peuplements Aquatiques, USM 0401, UMR 5178 CNRS, Paris, France.


In all vertebrates, the regulations of growth and energy balance are complex phenomena which involve elaborate interactions between the brain and peripheral signals. Most vertebrates adopt and maintain a life style after birth, but lower vertebrates may have complex life histories involving metamorphoses, migrations and long periods of fasting. In order to achieve the complex developmental programs associated with these changes, coordinated regulation of all aspects of energy metabolism is required. Somatotropic axis (somatostatin (SRIH) growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), is known to be involved in the regulation of growth and energy balance. Interestingly, recent studies showed that additional factors such as pituitary adenylate cyclase-activated polypeptide (PACAP), corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), ghrelin and leptin could also have major roles in the control of growth and metabolism in lower vertebrates (fish, amphibians and reptiles). This mini-review will survey the function of GH and metabolic regulation in lower vertebrates.

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