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Anesth Analg. 2007 Apr;104(4):847-9.

A comparison of laser-assisted drug delivery at two output energies for enhancing the delivery of topically applied LMX-4 cream prior to venipuncture.

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  • 1Department of Anesthesiology and Peri-Operative Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Doernbecher Children's Hospital, Portland, Oregon 97239, USA.



Laser-assisted drug delivery (LAD) has the potential for facilitating topical anesthesia with reduced onset time.


In this randomized, double-blind, crossover study we compared the efficacy and adverse event profile of LAD for topical anesthesia before venipuncture using two output energies (2.0 and 3.5 J/cm2).


Mean Visual Analog Scale pain scores were not statistically different (P = 0.57) between the low-energy (mean = 6.7) and high-energy (mean = 8.1) lasers.


LAD at an energy of 2.0 J/cm2 (570 mJ) is as effective, with similar adverse events, as an energy of 3.5 J/cm2 (1000 mJ) in facilitating topical anesthesia.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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