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J Neurosci. 2007 Mar 21;27(12):3057-63.

Minocycline reduces microglial activation and improves behavioral deficits in a transgenic model of cerebral microvascular amyloid.

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Department of Medicine, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, New York 11794, USA.


Cerebral microvascular amyloid beta protein (Abeta) deposition and associated neuroinflammation is increasingly recognized as an important component leading to cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease and related cerebral amyloid angiopathy disorders. Transgenic mice expressing the vasculotropic Dutch/Iowa (E693Q/D694N) mutant human Abeta precursor protein in brain (Tg-SwDI) accumulate abundant cerebral microvascular fibrillar amyloid deposits and exhibit robust neuroinflammation. In the present study, we investigated the effect of the anti-inflammatory drug minocycline on Abeta accumulation, neuroinflammation, and behavioral deficits in Tg-SwDI mice. Twelve-month-old mice were treated with saline or minocycline by intraperitoneal injection every other day for a total of 4 weeks. During the final week of treatment, the mice were tested for impaired learning and memory. Brains were then harvested for biochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. Minocycline treatment did not alter the cerebral deposition of Abeta or the restriction of fibrillar amyloid to the cerebral microvasculature. Similarly, minocycline-treated Tg-SwDI mice exhibited no change in the levels of total Abeta, the ratios of Abeta40 and Abeta42, or the amounts of soluble, insoluble, or oligomeric Abeta compared with the saline-treated control Tg-SwDI mice. In contrast, the numbers of activated microglia and levels of interleukin-6 were significantly reduced in minocycline-treated Tg-SwDI mice compared with saline-treated Tg-SwDI mice. In addition, there was a significant improvement in behavioral performance of the minocycline-treated Tg-SwDI mice. These finding suggest that anti-inflammatory treatment targeted for cerebral microvascular amyloid-induced microglial activation can improve cognitive deficits without altering the accumulation and distribution of Abeta.

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