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Br J Cancer. 2007 Mar 26;96(6):970-9.

Impact of differential cyclin D1 expression and localisation in prostate cancer.

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Department of Cell and Cancer Biology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45267, USA.


Cyclin D1 is a critical regulator of androgen-dependent transcription and cell cycle progression in prostate cancer cells. Despite the influence of D-type cyclins on prostate cancer proliferation, few studies have examined the expression of cyclin D1 in localised tumours or challenged its relevance to disease progression. Cyclin D1 status was characterised using immunohistochemistry in 38 non-neoplastic prostate samples, 138 primary human prostate carcinomas, and three lymph node metastatic specimens. Relevance of cyclin D1 to preoperative prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, Ki-67 index, and p21Cip1 status was also examined. Cyclin D1-positive phenotype was increased in primary carcinoma compared to non-neoplastic tissue, and was evident in all lymph node metastases cases. Interestingly, at least three distinct localisation patterns were observed in the cyclin D1-positive cohort, wherein cytoplasmic localisation was identified in a large fraction, and this pattern was predominant in lower grade tumours. Relevance of altered cyclin D1 status was observed, wherein cyclin D1-positive tumours were associated with low preoperative PSA levels, consistent with in vitro reports that cyclin D1 may alter the expression of this tumour marker. Moreover, tumours with predominantly cytoplasmic cyclin D1 showed the lowest Ki-67 index, whereas nuclear cyclin D1 was associated with higher grade, elevated Ki-67, and increased nuclear p21Cip1. These data demonstrate that differential cyclin D1 status may influence clinicopathological parameters, and reveal new insight as to the regulation and potential consequence of cyclin D1 expression in prostate cancer.

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