Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Retrovirology. 2007 Mar 20;4:20.

APOBEC3G levels predict rates of progression to AIDS.

Author information

1
Departments of Medicine, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14642, USA. xia_jin@urmc.rocheser.edu

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

APOBEC3G (hA3G) is a newly discovered cellular factor of innate immunity that inhibits HIV replication in vitro. Whether hA3G confers protection against HIV in vivo is not known. To investigate the possible anti-HIV activity of hA3G in vivo, we examined hA3G mRNA abundance in primary human cells isolated from either HIV-infected or HIV-uninfected individuals, and found that hA3G mRNA levels follow a hierarchical order of long-term nonprogressors>HIV-uninfected>Progressors; and, hA3G mRNA abundance is correlated with surrogates of HIV disease progression: viral load and CD4 count. Another group later confirmed that HIV-infected subjects have lower hA3G mRNA levels than HIV-uninfected controls, but did not find correlations between hA3G mRNA levels and viral load or CD4 count. These conflicting results indicate that a more comprehensive, conclusive investigation of hA3G expression levels in various patient cohorts is urgently needed.

PRESENTATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS:

For exploring whether hA3G abundance might influence HIV disease progression, we have formulated a hypothesis that includes two parts: a) in vivo, the basal hA3G mRNA expression level per PBMC is a constant--with minor physiologic fluctuations--determined by host genetic and epigenetic elements in a healthy individual; and that the basal hA3G mRNA expression levels in a population follow a Normal (or Gaussian) distribution; b) that although HIV infects randomly, it results in more rapid disease progression in those with lower hA3G mRNA levels, and slower disease progression in those with higher hA3G mRNA levels.

TESTING THE HYPOTHESIS:

This hypothesis could be tested by a straight forward set of experiments to compare the distribution of hA3G mRNA levels in HIV-uninfected healthy individuals and that in HIV-infected, antiretroviral therapy-naïve subjects who are at early and late stages of infection.

IMPLICATION OF THE HYPOTHESIS:

Testing this hypothesis will have significant implications for biomedical research. a) It will link hA3G to the mechanisms underlying slower disease progression in long-term nonprogressors. And, b) It may help to establish a new prognostic marker, the hA3G abundance measurement, for HIV-infected patients.

PMID:
17374143
PMCID:
PMC1832211
DOI:
10.1186/1742-4690-4-20
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for BioMed Central Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center