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J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Apr;22(4):470-7.

Spiritual well-being and depression in patients with heart failure.

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Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, University of Colorado at Denver and Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO 80262, USA.

Erratum in

  • J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Jul;22(7):1066.



In patients with chronic heart failure, depression is common and associated with poor quality of life, more frequent hospitalizations, and higher mortality. Spiritual well-being is an important, modifiable coping resource in patients with terminal cancer and is associated with less depression, but little is known about the role of spiritual well-being in patients with heart failure.


To identify the relationship between spiritual well-being and depression in patients with heart failure.


Cross-sectional study.


Sixty patients aged 60 years or older with New York Heart Association class II-IV heart failure.


Spiritual well-being was measured using the total scale and 2 subscales (meaning/peace, faith) of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Spiritual Well-being scale, depression using the Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-SF).


The median age of participants was 75 years. Nineteen participants (32%) had clinically significant depression (GDS-SF > 4). Greater spiritual well-being was strongly inversely correlated with depression (Spearman's correlation -0.55, 95% confidence interval -0.70 to -0.35). In particular, greater meaning/peace was strongly associated with less depression (r = -.60, P < .0001), while faith was only modestly associated (r = -.38, P < .01). In a regression analysis accounting for gender, income, and other risk factors for depression (social support, physical symptoms, and health status), greater spiritual well-being continued to be significantly associated with less depression (P = .05). Between the 2 spiritual well-being subscales, only meaning/peace contributed significantly to this effect (P = .02) and accounted for 7% of the variance in depression.


Among outpatients with heart failure, greater spiritual well-being, particularly meaning/peace, was strongly associated with less depression. Enhancement of patients' sense of spiritual well-being might reduce or prevent depression and thus improve quality of life and other outcomes in this population.

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