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Clin Cancer Res. 2007 Mar 15;13(6):1810-5.

A pilot trial of CTLA-4 blockade with human anti-CTLA-4 in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer.

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UCSF Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94115, USA.



Blockade of the T-cell inhibitory receptor CTL-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) augments and prolongs T-cell responses and is a strategy to elicit antitumor immunity. The objectives of this pilot study were to establish the pharmacokinetic and safety profile for a single dose of 3 mg/kg of the anti-CTLA-4 antibody Ipilimumab (MDX-010, BMS-734016) and to assess if this therapy resulted in prostate-specific antigen (PSA) modulation and the development of polyclonal T-cell activation and/or clinical autoimmunity in patients with hormone-refractory prostate cancer treated with Ipilimumab.


Patients with metastatic hormone-refractory prostate cancer received a single 3 mg/kg i.v. dose of Ipilimumab. Serologic measures of autoimmunity were obtained, and T-cell activation was evaluated by flow cytometry. Pharmacokinetic sampling of plasma for MDX-CTLA-4, PSA measurement, and diagnostic imaging were also undertaken.


Fourteen patients were treated: 12 patients received a single dose of Ipilimumab, and 2 patients were re-treated with a second dose upon PSA progression. Two patients showed PSA declines of > or =50%. Treatment was well tolerated with clinical autoimmunity limited to one patient who developed grade 3 rash/pruritus requiring systemic corticosteroids. The mean +/- SD Ipilimumab terminal elimination half-life was 12.5 +/- 5.3 days.


A single dose of 3 mg/kg Ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 antibody, given to patients with prostate cancer is safe and does not result in significant clinical autoimmunity. PSA-modulating effects observed warrant further investigation.

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