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Endocrinology. 2007 Jun;148(6):2681-9. Epub 2007 Mar 15.

Hypothalamic apolipoprotein A-IV is regulated by leptin.

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Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 45237-0507, USA.


Apolipoprotein A-IV (apo A-IV) is a satiety factor involved in the control of food intake and body weight. Our previous studies demonstrated that apo A-IV is present in areas of the hypothalamus where leptin acts to influence energy homeostasis. In the present studies, we found that leptin-deficient obese (ob/ob) mice have significantly reduced hypothalamic apo A-IV mRNA levels. Intragastric infusion of a lipid emulsion significantly stimulated hypothalamic apo A-IV gene expression in lean controls but not in ob/ob mice. Daily ip administration of leptin (3 microg/g) for 5 d significantly increased hypothalamic apo A-IV mRNA levels of ob/ob mice relative to pair-fed controls. In addition, centrally administered leptin raised the reduced apo A-IV gene expression induced by fasting. Using immunohistochemistry, we demonstrated that apo A-IV is present in leptin-sensitive phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (pSTAT3)-positive cells of the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus. Knockdown of STAT3 expression by small interfering RNA significantly attenuated the stimulatory effect of leptin on apo A-IV protein expression in cultured primary hypothalamic neurons, implying that the hypothalamic apo A-IV is regulated by leptin, at least partially, via the STAT3 signaling pathway. Third-ventricular (intracerebroventricular) administration of a subthreshold dose of leptin (1 microg) potentiated apo A-IV-induced (subthreshold dose, 0.5 microg) reduction of feeding, indicating the existence of a functional synergistic interaction between leptin and apo A-IV, leading to suppression of food intake.

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