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Int J Clin Pract. 2007 Jul;61(7):1209-15. Epub 2007 Mar 16.

Management of gynaecomastia: an update.

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St George's Hospital, London, UK.


Gynaecomastia, a benign enlargement of the male breast as a result of proliferation of the glandular component, is common, being present in 30-50% of healthy men. It may be an incidental finding, an acute unilateral or bilateral tender breast enlargement or a progressive painless enlargement of the male breast. A general medical history and careful physical examination, looking for features suggestive of breast cancer, often suffice for evaluation in patients without symptoms or those with incidentally discovered breast enlargement. If the gynaecomastia is of recent onset, a more detailed evaluation, including selected laboratory tests to search for an underlying cause is necessary. Treatment depends on the cause: an offending drug may need to be withdrawn or alternatively radiation, surgery and/or medical therapy may be necessary. The use of a combination of surgical excision and liposuction through a periareolar incision represents the surgical approach of choice.

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