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J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Jun;321(3):848-55. Epub 2007 Mar 9.

Chlorambucil cytotoxicity in malignant B lymphocytes is synergistically increased by 2-(morpholin-4-yl)-benzo[h]chomen-4-one (NU7026)-mediated inhibition of DNA double-strand break repair via inhibition of DNA-dependent protein kinase.

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1
Montreal Centre for Experimental Therapeutics in Cancer-Lady Davis Institute for Medical Research, Sir Mortimer B Davis-Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.

Abstract

Chlorambucil (CLB) treatment is used in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) but resistance to CLB develops in association with accelerated repair of CLB-induced DNA damage. Phosphorylated histone H2AX (gammaH2AX) is located at DNA double-strand break (DSB) sites; furthermore, it recruits and retains damage-responsive proteins. This damage can be repaired by nonhomologous DNA end-joining (NHEJ) and/or homologous recombinational repair (HR) pathways. A key component of NHEJ is the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) complex. Increased DNA-PK activity is associated with resistance to CLB in CLL. We used the specific DNA-PK inhibitor 2-(morpholin-4-yl)-benzo[h]chomen-4-one (NU7026) to sensitize CLL cells to chlorambucil. Our results indicate that in a CLL cell line (I83) and in primary CLL-lymphocytes, chlorambucil plus NU7026 has synergistic cytotoxic activity at nontoxic doses of NU7026. CLB treatment results in G(2)/M phase arrest, and NU7026 increases this CLB-induced G(2)/M arrest. Moreover, a kinetic time course demonstrates that CLB-induced DNA-PK activity was inhibited by NU7026, providing direct evidence of the ability of NU7026 to inhibit DNA-PK function. DSBs, visualized as gammaH2AX, were enhanced 24 to 48 h after CLB and further increased by CLB plus NU7026, suggesting that the synergy of the combination is mediated by NU7026 inhibition of DNA-PK with subsequent inhibition of DSB repair.

PMID:
17351105
DOI:
10.1124/jpet.106.118356
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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