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J Interferon Cytokine Res. 2007 Mar;27(3):221-6.

Cervical cytokine responses in women with primary or recurrent chlamydial infection.

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Institute of Pathology (ICMR), Safdarjung Hospital Campus, New Delhi, India.


Little is known about concurrent expression of cervical cytokines and their regulation by sex hormones during primary or recurrent chlamydial infections in humans. Cytokine (interleukin-1beta [IL-1beta], IL-6, IL-10, interferon-gamma [IFN-gamma], and tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-alpha]) concentrations in cervical washes and serum samples, along with levels of beta-estradiol and progesterone in women with primary or recurrent chlamydial infections and healthy controls, were measured by ELISA. Women with recurrent infections had significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma in cervical washes than did women with primary infections. Significant negative correlation was found between IL-1beta and progesterone levels during recurrent infections. Beta-estradiol levels in women with primary infections showed significant negative correlations with cervical concentrations of IL-10, IL-1beta, and IL-6. Our study suggests that Chlamydia trachomatis infection in the female genital tract may be regulated by both the synergistic actions of the cytokines and the sex hormones beta-estradiol and progesterone.

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