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Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2007 Mar;81(3):392-400.

The impact of UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 genetic polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetic profile of mycophenolic acid after a single oral dose in healthy volunteers.

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Research Center, CHUL Research Center and Faculty of Pharmacy, Laval University, Québec, Canada.


We studied whether polymorphisms in the UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 genes, the enzymes producing the phenolic (MPAG) and acyl (AcMPAG) glucuronides of mycophenolic acid (MPA), could contribute to the interindividual variation observed in mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) pharmacokinetics (PKs). This study enrolled 17 healthy volunteers with no polymorphisms (controls) and 17 carriers of UGT1A9 -275/-2152 selected among 305 individuals genetically screened for UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) polymorphisms. Additional investigative groups included carriers of UGT1A8*2 (A173G) (n=9), UGT1A8*3 (C277Y) (n=4), and UGT1A9*3 (M33T) (n=5). Genetic analysis also included UGT2B7 to detect UGT2B7*2 (His268Tyr) and the promoter haplotype -1248A>G, -1241T>C, -1054T>C, -842G>A, -268A>G, -102T>C. Kinetics were measured in plasma and urine after a single 1.5 g oral dose of MMF, by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry, over 12 h after drug intake. Compared to controls, MPA exposure was significantly lower for UGT1A9 -275/-2152 carriers, with no significant changes in MPAG. The estimates of enterohepatic (re)cycling (area under the concentration-time curve (AUC6-12 h/AUC0-12 h)) were significantly lower for MPA, MPAG, and AcMPAG in UGT1A9 -275/-2152 subjects. Compared with controls, UGT1A9*3 carriers had higher MPA and AcMPAG exposure, whereas homozygosity for the UGT1A8*2 allele and heterozygosity for UGT1A8*3 allele had no impact on MPA PKs. Compared with UGT2B7*1/*1 individuals (n=10), UGT2B7*2/*2 subjects (n=17) presented significantly higher free MPA C(max) values and elevated free and total MPA. Results indicate that after a single oral dose of MMF in healthy volunteers, specific UGT genotypes significantly alter MPA PKs and this clearly warrants additional studies with complete and detailed genetic profiling of UGT1A8, UGT1A9, and UGT2B7 genes.

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