Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Exp Eye Res. 2007 May;84(5):812-22. Epub 2007 Jan 9.

Regulation of VEGF mRNA expression and protein secretion by TGF-beta2 in human retinal pigment epithelial cells.

Author information

  • 1Department of Ophthalmology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48105, USA.


VEGF secretion by the human retinal pigment epithelium (hRPE) plays an important role in retinal and choroidal neovascularization. In this study, transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2)-induced vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene expression was investigated in hRPE cells. Treatment of hRPE cells with TGF-beta2 for 24 and 48h as compared to 8h resulted in markedly increased VEGF secretion by fivefold and nine-fold, respectively. Induced VEGF mRNA peaked within 3h of stimulation and remained above the basal at 36h. Stimulation of VEGF expression by TGF-beta2 was blocked by cycloheximide, suggesting that de novo protein synthesis is required. Induced VEGF production was strongly inhibited by anti-inflammatory agents, dexamethasone and cyclosporin A. Despite of the weak stimulation of VEGF expression by TNF-alpha or bFGF alone, co-administration of either of these two cytokines synergized the effect of TGF-beta2 on VEGF mRNA expression and protein production. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the synergy was predominantly at the level of VEGF transcription. Moreover, TGF-beta2-induced RPE VEGF secretion was significantly reduced by inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase (MEK) (U0126), p38 (SB202190), c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK), Sp600125, protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) (Genistein), and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) (Ly294002). Induced VEGF expression was completely abrogated by inhibitors of protein kinase C (PKC) (Ro318220), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) [caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE)], and reactive oxygen species (ROS) [N-acetyl-cysteine (Nac) and diphenyleneiodonium (DPI)]. These results suggest that MEK, p38, JNK, PI3K, and NF-kappaB as well as multiple essential signaling intermediates, including PKC, PTK and ROS, are involved in hRPE VEGF up regulation by TGF-beta2.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
    Loading ...
    Support Center