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J Neurosurg. 2006 Nov;105(5 Suppl):382-4.

Behavioral, developmental, and educational problems in children with nonsyndromic trigonocephaly.

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Department of Neurosurgery, Beaumont Hospital, Dublin, Ireland.



The neurobehavioral morbidity of nonsyndromic trigonocephaly is incompletely understood. The purpose of this study was twofold: first, to assess the degree of developmental, educational, and behavioral problems in patients with nonsyndromic trigonocephaly and second, to establish whether patients with mild degrees of trigonocephaly had a lower frequency of such problems.


The authors performed an observational study of the frequency of developmental, educational, and behavioral problems in 63 children with trigonocephaly at the National Craniofacial Centre in the Republic of Ireland between 1989 and 2004. The parents of the children completed a follow-up questionnaire. Thirty percent of patients had a mild form of trigonocephaly and were treated conservatively. The remainder underwent surgical correction. Speech and/or language delay was reported in 34% of the children. Thirty-three percent of the children needed to be assessed by a school psychologist, and 47% were receiving remedial or resource hours within the school system. Twenty percent of children required a special needs classroom assistant because of behavioral issues, and 37% of parents expressed concerns about their child's behavior. There were no statistically significant differences between children treated with surgery and those who had a mild deformity and were treated conservatively.


Nonsyndromic trigonocephaly is associated with a high frequency of developmental, educational, and behavioral problems. The frequency of these problems is not related to the severity of the trigonocephaly.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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