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Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2006;2(3):203-12.

Pramlintide in the management of insulin-using patients with type 2 and type 1 diabetes.

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Mercury Street Medical Group, Butte, MT, USA.


In patients with diabetes, dysregulation of multiple glucoregulatory hormones results in chronic hyperglycemia and an array of associated microvascular and macrovascular complications. Optimization of glycemic control, both overall (glycosylated hemoglobin [A1C]) and in the postprandial period, may reduce the risk of long-term vascular complications. However, despite significant recent therapeutic advances, most patients with diabetes are unable to attain and/or maintain normal or near-normal glycemia with insulin therapy alone. Pramlintide, an analog of amylin, is the first in a new class of pharmaceutical agents and is indicated as an adjunct to mealtime insulin for the treatment of patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes. By mimicking the actions of the naturally occurring hormone amylin, pramlintide complements insulin by regulating the appearance of glucose into the circulation after meals via three primary mechanisms of action: slowing gastric emptying, suppressing inappropriate post-meal glucagon secretion, and increasing satiety. In long-term clinical trials, adjunctive pramlintide treatment resulted in improved postprandial glucose control and significantly reduced A1C and body weight compared with insulin alone. The combination of insulin and pramlintide may provide a more physiologically balanced approach to managing diabetes.

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