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Leuk Lymphoma. 2007 Feb;48(2):244-55.

Adenovirus infection after allogeneic stem cell transplantation.

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Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, University Children's Hospital, Eberhard-Karls-University. Tuebingen, Germany.


Adenovirus infection after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is an emerging pathogen causing relevant morbidity and mortality, with preponderance in children. During the last years, basic research on the biology of the virus and host immune response ameliorated the diagnostic, surveillance, and therapeutic strategies. Risk factors for infection commonly have an impact on T-cell reconstitution, such as T-cell depleted graft, unrelated or HLA-mismatched donor transplantation, and GvHD. Weekly surveillance by PCR in stool and blood till day 100 or longer post-HSCT and pre-emptive therapy with cidofovir are the mainstay of the current approach to adenoviral infections post-HSCT. Since a sufficient host T-cell response is essential to clear the virus, diagnostic procedures for detection of virus-specific T-cells have recently been developed to assess the risk of the infection. Furthermore, adoptive immunotherapy is a new treatment option for patients with absent specific T-cell response and present systemic adenoviral infection.

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