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Pharmacogenomics. 2007 Mar;8(3):237-55.

Diagnostic potential for urinary proteomics.

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National Institutes of Health, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Warren Magnuson Clinical Center, Building 10, Room 2C-407, Bethesda, MD 20892-1508, USA.


Urine represents a modified ultrafiltrate of plasma, with protein concentrations typically approximately 1000-fold lower than plasma. Urine's low protein concentration might suggest it to be a less promising diagnostic specimen than plasma. However, urine can be obtained noninvasively and tests of many urinary proteins are well-established in clinical practice. Proteomic technologies expand opportunities to analyze urinary proteins, identifying more than 1000 proteins and peptides in urine. Urine offers a sampling of most plasma proteins, with increased proportions of low-molecular-weight protein and peptide components. Urine also offers enriched sampling of proteins released along the urinary tract. Although urine presents some challenges as a diagnostic specimen, its diverse range of potential markers offers great potential for diagnosis of both systemic and kidney diseases. Examples of clinical situations where this may be of value are for more sensitive detection of kidney transplant rejection or of renal toxicity of medications.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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