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J Adolesc Health. 2007 Mar;40(3):276-9. Epub 2007 Jan 5.

Violence and substance use as risk factors for depressive symptoms among adolescents in an urban emergency department.

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Department of Psychology, York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Violence and substance use were examined as multiple risk factors for depressive symptoms among 115 adolescents presenting to an urban emergency department. Using a hierarchical multivariate model, significant risk factors for increasing depression symptoms included female gender, increased involvement in substance use and greater exposure to community violence.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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