Send to

Choose Destination
Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007 Feb;119(1-2):35-45.

Severe traumatic brain injury in Austria III: prehospital status and treatment.

Author information

INRO (International Neurotrauma Research Organisation), Vienna, Austria.



The goal of this paper is to describe prehospital status and treatment of patients with severe TBI in Austria.


Data sets from 396 patients with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score < 9) included by 5 Austrian hospitals were available. The analysis focused on incidence and/or degree of severity of typical clinical signs, frequency of use of different management options, and association with outcomes for both. ICU mortality, 90-day mortality, final outcome (favorable = good recovery or moderate disability; unfavorable = severe disability, vegetative state, or death) after 6 or 12 months, and ratio of observed (90-day) to predicted mortality (O/E ratio) are reported for the selected parameters. Chi2 -test, t-test, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression were used to identify significant (p < 0.05) differences for association with survival and favorable outcome (both coded as 1).


The majority of patients were male (72%), mean age was 49 +/- 21 years, mean injury severity score (ISS) was 27 +/- 17, mean first GCS score was 5.6 +/- 2.9, and expected hospital survival was 63 +/- 30%. ICU mortality was 32%, 90-day mortality was 37%, and final outcome was favorable in 35%, unfavorable in 53%, unknown in 12%. We found that age > 60 years, ISS > 50 points, GCS score < 4, bilateral changes in pupil size and reactivity, respiratory rate < 10/min, systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 90 mm Hg, and heart rate < 60/min were associated with significantly higher ICU and 90-day mortality rates, and lower rates of favorable outcome. With regard to prognostic value the GCS motor response score is identical to the full GCS score. Administration of > 1000 ml of fluid and helicopter transport were associated with better outcomes than expected, while endotracheal intubation in the field had neither a positive nor a negative effect on outcomes. Administration of no or < 500 ml of fluids was associated with worse outcomes than expected. Outcomes were better than expected in the few patients (5%) who received hypertonic saline.


Age, ISS, and initial neuro status are the factors most closely associated with outcome. Hypotension must be avoided. Fluids should be given to restore and/or maintain SBP > 110 mm Hg. Helicopter transport should be arranged for more seriously injured patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center