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Wien Klin Wochenschr. 2007 Feb;119(1-2):35-45.

Severe traumatic brain injury in Austria III: prehospital status and treatment.

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1
INRO (International Neurotrauma Research Organisation), Vienna, Austria.

Abstract

OBJECTIVES:

The goal of this paper is to describe prehospital status and treatment of patients with severe TBI in Austria.

PATIENTS AND METHODS:

Data sets from 396 patients with severe TBI (Glasgow Coma Scale score < 9) included by 5 Austrian hospitals were available. The analysis focused on incidence and/or degree of severity of typical clinical signs, frequency of use of different management options, and association with outcomes for both. ICU mortality, 90-day mortality, final outcome (favorable = good recovery or moderate disability; unfavorable = severe disability, vegetative state, or death) after 6 or 12 months, and ratio of observed (90-day) to predicted mortality (O/E ratio) are reported for the selected parameters. Chi2 -test, t-test, Fisher's exact test, and logistic regression were used to identify significant (p < 0.05) differences for association with survival and favorable outcome (both coded as 1).

RESULTS:

The majority of patients were male (72%), mean age was 49 +/- 21 years, mean injury severity score (ISS) was 27 +/- 17, mean first GCS score was 5.6 +/- 2.9, and expected hospital survival was 63 +/- 30%. ICU mortality was 32%, 90-day mortality was 37%, and final outcome was favorable in 35%, unfavorable in 53%, unknown in 12%. We found that age > 60 years, ISS > 50 points, GCS score < 4, bilateral changes in pupil size and reactivity, respiratory rate < 10/min, systolic blood pressure (SBP) < 90 mm Hg, and heart rate < 60/min were associated with significantly higher ICU and 90-day mortality rates, and lower rates of favorable outcome. With regard to prognostic value the GCS motor response score is identical to the full GCS score. Administration of > 1000 ml of fluid and helicopter transport were associated with better outcomes than expected, while endotracheal intubation in the field had neither a positive nor a negative effect on outcomes. Administration of no or < 500 ml of fluids was associated with worse outcomes than expected. Outcomes were better than expected in the few patients (5%) who received hypertonic saline.

CONCLUSIONS:

Age, ISS, and initial neuro status are the factors most closely associated with outcome. Hypotension must be avoided. Fluids should be given to restore and/or maintain SBP > 110 mm Hg. Helicopter transport should be arranged for more seriously injured patients.

PMID:
17318749
DOI:
10.1007/s00508-006-0762-3
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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