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Oncogene. 2007 Jul 26;26(34):4928-40. Epub 2007 Feb 19.

p53 downstream target DDA3 is a novel microtubule-associated protein that interacts with end-binding protein EB3 and activates beta-catenin pathway.

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  • 1Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, National Yang-Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan.


We have previously identified mouse DDA3 as a p53-inducible gene. To explore the functional role of DDA3, we screened a mouse brain cDNA library by the yeast two-hybrid assay, and identified the microtubule plus-end binding protein EB3 as a DDA3-interacting protein. Binding of DDA3 to EB3 was verified by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down assay and subcellular colocalization; co-immunoprecipitation further indicated that interaction of these two proteins within cells required intact microtubules. Domains of DDA3-EB3 interaction were mapped by GST pull-down assay to amino acids 118-241 and 242-329 of DDA3 and the N- and C-termini of EB3. Immunofluorescence analysis revealed colocalization of DDA3 with microtubules in various cell phases, and regions encompassing aa 118-241 and 242-329 contained microtubule-interacting and bundling activities. In vitro microtubule-binding assay showed that DDA3 and EB3 associated directly with microtubules, and cooperated with each other for microtubule binding. In addition, DDA3 bound to the EB3 interacting partner adenomatous polyposis coli 2 (APC2), a homolog of the tumor suppressor APC, which is a component of the beta-catenin destruction complex. Ectopic expression of DDA3 and EB3 enhanced beta-catenin-dependent transactivation and cyclin D1 production, whereas knockdown of endogenous DDA3 or EB3 inhibited beta-catenin-mediated transactivation and the ability of cells to form colonies. Together, our results identify DDA3 as a novel microtubule-associated protein that binds to EB3, and implicate DDA3 and EB3 in the beta-catenin-mediated growth signaling.

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