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J Anat. 2007 Feb;210(2):209-20.

Morphometric analysis of facial landmark data to characterize the facial phenotype associated with fetal alcohol syndrome.

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MRC/UCT Medical Imaging Research Unit, Department of Human Biology, University of Cape Town, South Africa.


Procrustes analysis and principal component analysis were applied to stereo-photogrammetrically obtained landmarks to compare the facial features associated with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) in subjects with FAS and normal controls. Two studies were performed; both compared facial landmark data of FAS and normal subjects, but they differed in the number of landmarks chosen. The first study compared landmarks representing palpebral fissure length, upper lip thinness and philtrum smoothness and revealed no significant difference in shape. The second study added to the landmarks used in the first those affected by mid-face hypoplasia, and revealed significant differences in shape between the two groups, broadly confirming the FAS gestalt reported in the literature. Some disagreement in the characteristic FAS facial shape between our results and those reported in the literature may be due to ethnic variation.

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