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Physiol Behav. 2007 Apr 23;90(5):797-802. Epub 2007 Jan 20.

Chemosensory cues from the lacrimal and preputial glands stimulate production of IP3 in the vomeronasal organ and aggression in male mice.

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  • 1Alabama State University, Department of Biological Sciences, Montgomery, AL 36101-0271, USA.


The social and reproductive behaviors of most mammals are modulated by chemosensory cues. The perception of some of these cues is mediated by the vomeronasal organ, which is a cartilage-encased elongated organ associated with the vomer bone in the rostral nasal cavity. Several studies have shown that chemosensory cues are present in urine, seminal fluid or vaginal secretions but only a few studies have focused on exocrine glands as a source of chemosensory cues. Here we show that chemosensory cues present in two exocrine glands, i.e., the preputial gland located at the caudal region and the lacrimal gland located at the rostral region, are capable of stimulating aggression in male mice. We further show that these extracts can stimulate the production of inositol-(1,4,5)-trisphosphate in the vomeronasal organ.

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