Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2007 Jan;116(1):1-6.

Hands-on training methods for vocal fold injection education.

Author information

New York University Voice Center, Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York, USA.



Vocal fold injection (VFI) in the office setting and in the operating room is becoming increasingly popular. Most training programs fail to educate residents in performing these injections. In this report, we describe novel and effective teaching tools that provide real-life simulation of VFI for the education of residents and otolaryngologists in practice.


Equipment was developed to allow the use of excised fresh cadaver larynges to simulate peroral VFI in a life-sized model of the human head and neck. A separate setup was also developed for use of a laryngoscope holder and cadaver larynges to simulate microlaryngoscopy VFI. Each of these VFI training setups allows the student to perform and practice VFI in a simulated setting with physical and anatomic constraints and laryngeal anatomy similar to those of real-life VFI. The use of fresh cadaver larynges allows the user to have a realistic feel of actual injection. A visual analog scale was used to measure the participants' comfort levels with the peroral and microlaryngoscopic injection techniques before and after the workshop.


Pre-workshop and post-workshop surveys were collected from 22 of the VFI course participants. The mean comfort levels for VFI prior to the workshop were 22 for peroral VFI and 69 for microlaryngoscopy VFI (0 = not comfortable at all and 100 = very comfortable). The post-workshop comfort levels were 52 for peroral VFI and 85 for microlaryngoscopy VFI. The differences in the pre- and post-workshop comfort level scores for each VFI technique were significant (microlaryngoscopy, p = .001; peroral, p < .0001).


The use of VFI simulations appears to improve surgeon comfort level with injection techniques. The described training simulations may be useful for allowing residents and practicing otolaryngologists to learn VFI before attempting these techniques on actual patients.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Atypon
    Loading ...
    Support Center