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Infect Immun. 1992 Feb;60(2):662-8.

Immunization against anthrax with Bacillus anthracis protective antigen combined with adjuvants.

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Bacteriology Division, United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases, Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland 21702-5011.


The protective efficacy of immunization against anthrax with Bacillus anthracis protective antigen (PA) combined with different adjuvants was tested in Hartley guinea pigs and CBA/J and A/J mice. Adjuvant components derived from microbial products that were tested included threonyl-muramyl dipeptide (threonyl-MDP); monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL); trehalose dimycolate (TDM); and the delipidated, deproteinized, cell wall skeleton (CWS) from either Mycobacterium phlei or the BCG strain of Mycobacterium bovis. Non-microbially derived adjuvants tested included aluminum hydroxide and the lipid amine CP-20,961. In guinea pigs, all adjuvants and adjuvant mixtures enhanced antibody titers to PA as well as survival after a parenteral challenge of virulent B. anthracis Ames spores. In contrast, PA alone or combined with either aluminum hydroxide or CP-20,961 failed to protect mice. Vaccines containing PA combined with threonyl-MDP or MPL-TDM-CWS protected a majority of female CBA/J mice. Statistical analysis of survival data in the guinea pigs indicated that PA-MPL-CWS and PA-MPL-TDM-CWS were more efficacious than the currently licensed human anthrax vaccine.

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