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Infect Immun. 1992 Feb;60(2):485-90.

An enzymatic mutant of Shiga-like toxin II variant is a vaccine candidate for edema disease of swine.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences, Bethesda, Maryland 22908.

Abstract

Edema disease (ED) of weanling pigs is caused by an infection with Escherichia coli that produces Shiga-like toxin II variant (SLT-IIv). Pathology identical to that caused by ED can be duplicated in pigs that are injected with less than 10 ng of purified SLT-IIv per kg of body weight. Therefore, SLT-IIv was mutated to create an immunoreactive form of the toxin that was significantly reduced in enzymatic activity. Initially, purified SLT-IIv was treated with formaldehyde which abrogated cytotoxic activity. Pigs were vaccinated with the toxoid (100 micrograms) to determine whether a toxoid was a viable vaccine candidate and whether young pigs were capable of mounting an immune response. Although the pigs developed a neutralizing antibody titer (1:128 to 1:512) 28 days postinjection, they also lost weight and developed ED lesions. The deleterious effect of the toxoid appeared to result from residual enzymatic activity or a reversion to a toxic form. An alternative method, site-directed mutagenesis, was employed to consistently reduce the enzymatic activity of SLT-IIv. Glutamate at position 167 of the mature A subunit was replaced by aspartate (E167D), and arginine at position 170 was replaced by lysine (R170K). These mutations reduced cytotoxic activity 10(4)-fold and 10-fold, respectively, while the enzymatic activities were decreased 400-fold and 5-fold, respectively. The activity of a toxin that contained both mutations (SLT-IIvE167D/R170K) closely resembled that of SLT-IIvE167D. When position 167 was replaced by glutamine (E167Q), the cytotoxic activity decreased 10(6)-fold and the enzymatic activity decreased approximately 1,500-fold. Pigs that were vaccinated with purified, mutant toxin designated SLT-IIvE167Q developed a neutralizing antibody titer of 1:512 21 days postinjection, and their tissues were free of ED lesions. These data suggest that SLT-IIvE167Q may represent an effective vaccine against ED.

PMID:
1730480
PMCID:
PMC257653
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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