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Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil. 2007 Feb;14(1):141-8.

CARRISMA: a new tool to improve risk stratification and guidance of patients in cardiovascular risk management in primary prevention.

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Klinische Kardiologie II, Herz-Zentrum, Bad Krozingen, Germany.



Risk stratification is important for decisions about the intensity of treatment in primary prevention. Risk factors and lifestyle factors are responsible for over 80% of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. However, body mass index (BMI), physical activity and smoking (cigarettes/day) are not or not quantitatively represented in the risk stratification system.


CARdiovascular RISk MAnagement (CARRISMA) is a software program considering the prognostic impact of BMI, physical activity and cigarettes per day adjusted for age and sex based on multivariate regression analyses from the literature on top of one of the three major scores to improve risk stratification. The 10-year European Society of Cardiology Systematic COronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) cardiovascular mortality risk for an intermediate risk region, e.g. increases from 3 to 6% by considering smoking of 30 cigarettes per day instead of just 'smoking' and by taking into account a BMI of 34. Whereas the 10-year ESC cardiovascular mortality risk of a 55-year-old active individual decreases from 5 to 3%, by considering a physical activity equivalent of 2100 kcal/week, the Framingham or PROspective CArdiovascular M√ľnster (PROCAM) risks change accordingly.


CARRISMA facilitates the application of knowledge of the current literature in the individual patient in a user-friendly manner allowing a more detailed and yet time-efficient risk stratification and risk management in primary prevention, particularly in the intermediate risk range.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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