Send to

Choose Destination
Mol Endocrinol. 2007 May;21(5):1163-74. Epub 2007 Feb 13.

Leukemia inhibitory factor induces the chemomigration of immortalized gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons through the independent activation of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling pathways.

Author information

Department of Endocrinology, Center of Excellence on Neurodegenerative Diseases, University of Milan, via G. Balzaretti, 9, 20133 Milano, Italy.


Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine of the IL-6 superfamily. LIF acts through a cell-surface receptor complex formed by two subunits, the specific LIF receptor beta (LIFRbeta) and the glycoprotein 130. Little is known about LIF involvement in modulating the neuroendocrine circuitry governing the reproductive function and, specifically, the development of GnRH-secreting neurons. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of LIF on the in vitro migration of GN11 cells, a model of immature and migratory GnRH neurons, and the signaling pathways involved in this process. GN11 cells expressed both LIFRbeta and glycoprotein 130 subunits. Exposure of GN11 cells to 100 ng/ml LIF resulted in activation of the Janus kinases (Jaks)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3, MAPK/ERK1/2, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/protein kinase B/Akt pathways. The selective inhibition of Jaks, MAPK kinase, and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase indicated that these signaling pathways were activated independently by LIF and that Jak2 is not the main kinase involved in LIF signaling. Exposure of GN11 cells to LIF for 3 h induced a concentration-dependent chemotactic response, with a plateau at 100 ng/ml LIF. LIF was also found to induce chemokinesis of GN11 cells. Furthermore, LIF-promoted GN11 migration was the result of the partial and independent contribution of all the three signaling pathways activated by LIF. The present data, together with the observation that LIF and LIFRbeta are expressed prenatally in the mouse nasal compartment, would suggest that LIF might participate in the migration of GnRH neurons.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Silverchair Information Systems
Loading ...
Support Center