Send to

Choose Destination
Br J Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Jul;64(1):49-56. Epub 2007 Feb 12.

Gender, age, smoking behaviour and plasma clozapine concentrations in 193 Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia.

Author information

Beijing Anding Hospital, Capital University of Medical Sciences, Beijing, China.



To study the relationship between age, gender, cigarette smoking and plasma concentrations of clozapine (CLZ) and its metabolite, norclozapine (NCLZ) in Chinese patients with schizophrenia.


Data from a therapeutic drug monitoring programme were analysed retrospectively. One hundred and ninety-three Chinese inpatients with schizophrenia were assessed using clinical data forms. Steady-state plasma concentrations of CLZ and NCLZ were assayed using high-performance liquid chromatography. Comparisons of dosage and plasma CLZ concentrations were undertaken between males (n = 116) and females (n = 77), younger (<or=40 years, n = 82) and older patients (>40 years, n = 111) and current male smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 66).


(i) Plasma CLZ concentrations demonstrated large interindividual variability, up to eightfold at a given dose; (ii) there were significant effects of gender on plasma CLZ concentrations (relative to dose per kg of body weight) with female patients having significantly higher concentrations than males (30.09 +/- 24.86 vs. 19.87 +/- 3.55 ng ml(-1) mg(-1) day(-1) kg(-1); P < 0.001); (iii) there were no significant differences in plasma CLZ concentrations between those patients <or=40 years old and those >40 years; and (iv) there were no significant differences in plasma CLZ concentrations between male smokers and nonsmokers, despite the CLZ dosage for smokers being significantly higher.


Plasma CLZ concentrations vary up to eightfold in Chinese patients. Among the patient-related factors investigated, only gender was significant in affecting CLZ concentrations in Chinese patients with schizophrenia, with female patients having higher levels.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center