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Oncogene. 2007 Jul 5;26(31):4550-62. Epub 2007 Feb 12.

Tumor suppressor Pdcd4 inhibits invasion/intravasation and regulates urokinase receptor (u-PAR) gene expression via Sp-transcription factors.

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The Department of Experimental Surgery and Molecular Oncology of Solid Tumors, Medical Faculty Mannheim, University Heidelberg and DKFZ Heidelberg, Germany.


Tumor suppressor Pdcd4 has recently been shown to inhibit invasion by activating activator protein-1 (AP-1); however, little is known of the functionally significant Pdcd4-target genes. The urokinase receptor (u-PAR) promotes invasion/metastasis, and is associated with poor cancer-patient survival. The present study was conducted (1) to investigate a role for Pdcd4 in intravasation, invasion and u-PAR regulation, and (2) to describe mechanisms by which this is achieved. Fourteen cell lines showed reciprocal expression of u-PAR/Pdcd4. Resected tumor/normal tissues of 29 colorectal cancer patients demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between Pdcd4/u-PAR. siRNA-Pdcd4-transfected GEO cells significantly increased endogenous u-PAR mRNA/protein. A u-PAR-promoter-chloramphenicol acetyl transferase (CAT)-reporter was reduced in activity with increasing Pdcd4 expression in RKO. Deletion of a putative Sp-1-binding site (-402/-350) inhibited u-PAR promoter regulation by Pdcd4, this being paralleled by a reduction of Sp1 binding to this region in pdcd4-transfected cells. Pdcd4-transfected cells showed an increase in Sp3 binding to u-PAR promoter region -152/-135, the deletion of which reduces the ability of Pdcd4 to suppress u-PAR promoter activity. Surprisingly, the u-PAR-AP-1 site was not targeted by Pdcd4. Finally, RKO cells overexpressing Pdcd4 showed an inhibition of invasion/intravasation (chicken embryo metastasis assay). These data suggest Pdcd4 as a new negative regulator of intravasation, and qas the invasion-related gene u-PAR. It is the first study to implicate Pdcd4 regulation of gene expression via Sp1/Sp3.

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