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Pediatrics. 2007 Mar;119(3):e694-704. Epub 2007 Feb 12.

Infectious disease morbidity among young HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants in Latin American and Caribbean countries: the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study.

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  • 1University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Sao Paulo, Brazil.



The goal was to describe the frequency, characteristics, and correlates of infectious disease morbidity during the first 6 months of life among HIV-1-exposed but uninfected infants.


The study population consisted of infants enrolled in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development International Site Development Initiative Perinatal Study who were HIV-1 uninfected and had follow-up data through the 6-month study visit. Definitive and presumed infections were recorded at study visits (birth, 6-12 weeks, and 6 months).


Of 462 HIV-1-uninfected infants with 11,644 child-weeks of observation, 283 experienced > or = 1 infection. These 283 infants experienced 522 infections (1.8 infections per infant). The overall incidence rate of infections was 4.5 cases per 100 child-weeks of observation. Overall, the most common infections were skin or mucous membrane infections (1.9 cases per 100 child-weeks) and respiratory tract infections (1.7 cases per 100 child-weeks). Thirty-six percent of infants had > 1 respiratory tract infection (1.8 cases per 100 child-weeks). Incidence rates of upper and lower respiratory tract infections were similar (0.89 cases per 100 child-weeks and 0.9 cases per 100 child-weeks, respectively). Cutaneous and/or oral candidiasis occurred in 48 neonates (10.3%) and 92 older infants (19.3%). Early neonatal sepsis was diagnosed in 12 infants (26.0 cases per 1000 infants). Overall, 81 of 462 (17.5%) infants were hospitalized with an infection. Infants with lower respiratory tract infections were hospitalized frequently (40.7%). The occurrence of > or = 1 neonatal infection was associated with more-advanced maternal HIV-1 disease, tobacco use during pregnancy, infant anemia, and crowding. Lower maternal CD4+ cell counts, receipt of intrapartum antibiotic treatment, and country of residence were associated with postneonatal infections.


Close monitoring of HIV-1-exposed infants, especially those who are anemic at birth or whose mothers have more-advanced HIV-1 disease or who smoked during pregnancy, remains important.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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