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Int J Cancer. 2007 Jul 1;121(1):21-32.

Adrenomedullin is induced by hypoxia and enhances pancreatic cancer cell invasion.

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Department of General Surgery, University of Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.


Adrenomedullin (ADM) is synthesized by different types of cells and acts by binding calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CRLR) and members of the receptor activity-modifying protein (RAMP) family. In this study, the expression and functional role of ADM and its signaling components were investigated in pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). By QRT-PCR, median mRNA levels of ADM and CRLR were 1.5- and 2.4-fold higher, respectively, in PDAC tissues compared to normal pancreatic tissues. By immunohistochemistry, ADM, CRLR, RAMP1 and RAMP2, but not RAMP3, were expressed in pancreatic cancer cells. ADM serum levels were significantly increased in PDAC patients compared to healthy controls and chronic pancreatitis (CP) patients, with an area under the ROC curve of 0.83 and 0.98, respectively. At a cut-off level of 30.6 ng/ml, the specificity of ADM to differentiate PDAC from controls and CP patients was 85.5 and 83.6%, with a sensitivity of 80 and 100%. All 5 evaluated pancreatic cancer cells lines expressed ADM, CRLR, RAMP1 and RAMP2, whereas RAMP3 was expressed in only 1/5 pancreatic cancer cell lines. ADM was strongly induced by hypoxia and significantly increased invasiveness in 3/5 human pancreatic cancer cells. Blocking of CRLR decreased invasiveness in 4/5 human pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, rADM slightly up-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor secretion in 3/5 cell lines. In conclusion, ADM is induced by hypoxia and over-expressed in PDAC and might therefore serve as a potential tumor marker. Furthermore, ADM increases invasiveness of some pancreatic cancer cells and might influence angiogenesis, suggesting that blocking this pathway might have a therapeutic potential.

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